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Sorghum


INTRODUCTION

Sorghum is one of the main coarse cereal crops of India. India is second largest producer of sorghum in the world. This crop is ideally suited for semi-arid agroclimatic regions of the country and, it gives reasonably good yield with minimal requirement of irrigation and fertilizers as compare to other cereals such as Wheat & rice. Mostly cultivated in the semi-arid regions for fodder to feed the large cattle population of the country as well as to meet the demand of industrial applications.

India is the second largest producer of sorghum in the world, the yield of 840 kg per hectare is the lowest amongst the major sorghum-producing countries in the world. The world average is 1435 kg per hectare. Although yield of sorghum in India is much lower than the world average, it has been consistently increasing during the recent past.

Sorghum is grown in the kharif (rainy season) and rabi (post rainy season) but the share of kharif is higher both in terms of area under cultivation and production. Rabi crop is almost entirely used for human consumption whereas kharif crop is not very popular for human consumption and largely is used for animal feed, starch, and alcohol industry. Only 5% of the area under sorghum in India is irrigated.Over 48% of the area under sorghum cultivation in the country is in Maharashtra and Karnataka. for this grain.

Origin and Spread

  • Archeological evidence suggests that the practices of cereal domestication was introduced from Ethiopia to Egypt about 3000 BC.
  • It is possible that domestication of sorghum began about that time.
  • Cultivated sorghum probably originated in east central Africa in or near Ethiopia or Sudan because of the great diversity of types found growing in that region.
  • The diversity of cultivated types decreased towards Northern Africa, Southern Africa and Asia and also towards Western Africa.
  • The general types found in Europe, Southern Asia and in other parts of Africa also occur in North East Africa. The cultivated sorghum would have arisen from one or more wild species of genus Sorghum.
  • The wild species include Tunis grass (Sorghum virgatum), Komerun grass (S. effusus), Tabuki grass (S. verticilliflorum), S. plumosum, S. arundinaceum and S. aethiopicum each with 10 haploid chromosome.
  • It has been reported that any or all of grass sorghums designated as S. verticilliflorum. S. arundinaecum and S. aethiopicum were the progenitors.
  • The beginning of sorghum culture, as that of most other crops, is shrouded in mystery. Evidence indicates that it started in eastern Africa (probably Ethiopia or Sudan) in prehistoric times perhaps 5,000 to 7,000 or more years ago.
  • Sorghum apparently was carried by migrating natives to many countries of Africa before its existence was recorded. It had reached Botswana (Bechuanaland) by the 10th century A.D., Zambia by the 14th century and Southern Africa in the 16th century.
  • The earliest available record of sorghum is its occurrence in a carving in the palace of Sennacherib, at Ninevah, Assyria, about 700 B.C.
  • It had reached India and Europe by about the beginning of the Christian era and was mentioned by Pliny in the 1st century A.D. Sorghum production spread across southern Asia, and reached China apparently in the 13th century.
  • There are no authentic records of sorghum in China before about 1200 A.D. despite several suggestions of an earlier arrival.
  • It may have been introduced there from southeast Asia or India, after which the characteristic kaoliang types of China, Manchuria and Japan were evolved.
  • Seed of sorghum was carried from Africa to various parts of the western hemisphere by captive slaves during the 17th and 18th centuries.
  • One variety, a type of kafir called guinea corn, was grown well into the 20th century.
  • Another introduction, called chicken corn, escaped from cultivation, became a serious weed pest, and is now called shattercane or wildcane because its seeds shatter readily and remain viable over winter in the soil.
  • The culture of sorghum for syrup and forage in the United States followed the introduction of Chinese Amber sorgo from France in 1853 and 15 varieties of sorgo brought from South Africa by Leonard Wray, an English sugar planter, in 1857.
  • Sorghum was extensively used for syrup production in early 1900.

Role In National Economy

  • Sorghum is a staple food and provides carbohydrates to the people in North Karnataka, Maharastra, Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan.
  • It occupies 5.27 per cent of gross cultivated area.
  • Sorghum grain is an important raw material for starch industry and also used as cattle and poultry feed.
  • This crop also has export potential.
  • Sweet sorghum varieties have juicy stalk and can be utilized for jaggery and alcohol production.
  • From one hectare of sweet sorghum 33 kg of jaggery and 2100 litres of alcohol can be obtained.
  • These value added products have good market potential and can improve the economic status of the farmer.

SPECIFICATION

Sorghum ( Red, Yellow, White ) (machine cleaned)
Moisture 13% (Max)
Purity 99% (Min)
Foreign Matter 1% (Max)
Origin Indian
Packing In strong pp bags 30/40/50 kg
packing net/gross
1fcl/20ft 24mt/1fcl
H.S. Code 10079000
Used Human consumption & bird feed

 

Sorghum is a major cereal crop, being grown extensively in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. It is an important food crop for a large section of people in Africa and Asia and also the main source of fodder and industrial raw material. It ranks third in area and production after rice and wheat. Sorghum is also used in production of starch, biscuits, sugar and alcohol. Sorghum grain is a principal source of alcoholic beverages in many countries. The major sorghum growing areas include great plains of North America, sub Saharan Africa, North Eastern China, India, Argentina, Nigeria, Egypt and Mexico. France and Spain are major producers of sorghum in Europe. In some countries sorghum stalks are carried as decorations by people in their marches during festivals. The national flag of Burundi, an East African country bears the figure of a bundle of sorghum stalks.

    25/50 Kg Bag Packing

Quality product and ethical business practise

It is used both in human and bird feed consumption. Sorghum is widely used in preparation of alcohol. It is also used to make bread, soup, scones, flour, porridge, cakes, mixed drinks etc.